Doe v. LumintangEAST TIMOR: ATROCITIES DURING THE INDEPENDENCE REFERENDUM
IN BRIEF | BACKGROUND | LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Doe v. Lumintang is a civil action against the ex-Vice Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army, Johny Lumintang. Filed in March 2000, the suit seeks redress for six East Timorese activists who were targeted by the Indonesian military in a systematic campaign of violence following the September 1999 referendum on independence for East Timor.
A default judgment was entered against him on September 10, 2001, and he was ordered to pay $66 million. However, on November 9, 2004 the judgment was vacated on the grounds that the service of the complaint at Dulles in Fairfax, VA did not give the District Court for the District of Columbia jurisdiction over the case.
East Timor was invaded and annexed by neighboring Indonesia on December 7, 1975. In an effort to subdue the occupied Timorese population, the Indonesian military engaged in a relentless campaign of human rights violations, killing an estimated 200,000 East Timorese.
In 1999, the U.N. conducted a referendum to allow the people of East Timor to determine their national status. On 30 August 1999, the independence vote carried by 78.5%. During the five days of the U.N. ballot count, violence escalated, as hundreds of East Timorese were killed and many fled their homes to the relative safety of the hills and mountains.
Within hours of the announcement of the results of the referendum, Indonesian military and pro-Indonesian paramilitaries carried out coordinated assaults on the capital Dili and across the countryside, killing an estimated 1,400 individuals. This systematic campaign of violence forcibly displaced some 200,000 people into detention camps in Indonesian West Timor and destroyed an estimated 75% of East Timor’s private buildings and infrastructure.
In 1999, Defendant Lumintang served as the Vice Chief of Staff of the Indonesian military. In this position, Lumintang oversaw the Indonesian military's program of eliminating all social, political or religious activities that challenged the illegal Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
In his position of Vice Chief of Staff in June 1999, General Lumintang signed a Covert Operations Manual for Kopassus which provided for the training of Kopassus intelligence troops in propaganda, kidnapping, terror, agitation, sabotage, infiltration, undercover operations, wiretapping, photographic intelligence and psychological operations. Kopassus operatives have been linked to the surveillance, kidnapping, torture and extrajudicial killing of East Timorese independence activists both prior and subsequent to the independence "popular consultation."
CJA’s clients – whose identities remain concealed for security reasons – are survivors and relatives of the victims killed by state-sponsored violence under Lumintang’s watch.
ComplaintAlerted to the fact that Lumintang was scheduled to deliver a talk in Washington D.C. at a symposium of the United States–Indonesia Society, the plaintiffs requested that CJA and the Center for Constitutional Rights file a civil suit against Lumintang on their behalf. In March 2000, an attempt to serve the complaint on General Lumintang at the symposium was thwarted, but he was followed to Dulles Airport and served while waiting to board his plane. Lumintang left the U.S., and has never returned.
The complaint – which alleged, inter alia, crimes against humanity; torture; cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment; and extrajudicial killing – was filed with the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.
Default Judgment & Damages Hearing
Lumintang failed to respond to the complaint; therefore, District Judge Gladys Kessler entered a default judgment against him. A hearing on damages was held March 27-29, 2001. In the evidentiary hearing, CJA’s clients gave sobering testimony, including that of a young man whose foot was amputated after he had been shot by Indonesian soldiers who had detained and beaten him.
On September 10, 2001, Defendant Lumintang, was found liable for torture; wrongful death; summary execution; assault; battery and intentional infliction of emotional distress. Plaintiffs were awarded damages approximating $10 million each.
On March 25, 2002 Lumintang filed a motion to vacate the judgment. Magistrate judge, Alan Kay, issued a Report & Recommendation on March 3, 2004, recommending that Lumintang's motion to vacate the judgment be denied.
However, on November 9, 2004, District Judge Gladys Kessler issued an order to vacate the default judgment, finding that the service of the complaint and summons on Lumintang at Dulles Airport in Fairfax, Virginia did not give the District Court in the District of Columbia personal jurisdiction over Lumintang.
Judge Kessler concluded: "The events in East Timor were a terrible tragedy. It is with great regret that the Court concludes that basic principles of United States jurisprudence compel the conclusion that the Report and Recommendation denying Defendant's Motion to Set Aside Default Judgment and Order and Judgment on Damages must be overruled and that Defendant's Motion must [be] granted."